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Punting by Dontknowwhattodraw94 Punting by Dontknowwhattodraw94
It's flood in a North African estuarium. The water is at it highest and the sand has sunk back to the bottom after being propelled by the current. We get quite some meters of clear view during diving. 
We're at the outgrowths of the mangroves that are located a stone's throw away. They spread out over the rest of the estuarium that's more located inwards and all of its channels and rivers. They house a vaste amount of organisms ranging from small plants to fish bigger than cars and crocodilians that are even larger. This is no surprise since mangroves are the perfect place where young fish can grow and seek for protection. It's this that lures in the predators that come here to feed, maybe even to bear their own young themselves. 
It's here at the outgrowths a huge fish finds itself searching for food: a Retodus tuberculatus, a lungfish of about 3,5 meters long. It's heading for the mangroves where it can eat whatever it can find. 

Suddenly a huge shape comes out of the outgrowths, shooting towards the lungfish. The fish turns around in an instant in an attempt to escape.
The predator is a huge Spinosaurus aegyptiacus. He's been patrolling the mangroves' border since flood has settled and was on its way to enter one of the channels in search for prey. Luckily for him he found it easier then expected. The large theropod runs over the bottom with incredible speed and agility. Its sail prevents it from rolling over during sharp turns, the sensory organs on its snout and the clear view give the lungfish no chances of escape. 


Punting is a way of underwater locomotion we can see in several nowaday's animals such as hippos, crocodiles and tapirs for example. 
Here I gave our most discussed large theropod the same way of moving, together with a thick skin to aid in negative buoyancy.
This is based on Duane Nash's blog posts about Spinosaurus where he describes the dinosaur as an animal that makes sense in its environment with the weird proportions Ibrahim et al. gave it in their 2014 paper.
You can read more about it on his blog in the following posts here:
antediluviansalad.blogspot.be/…
antediluviansalad.blogspot.be/…
antediluviansalad.blogspot.be/…


In short you just end up with an awesome, mostly aquatic, short-legged, underwater running, thick-skinned theropod that wrestles with giant fish and blocks entire channels with its body.
Let's see how many fanboys will get triggered...



Animals depicted: 

Spinosaurus aegyptiacus
Retodus tuberculatus
Stomatosuchus inermis (juvenile)
Cladocyclus pankowskii
Asteracanthus aegyptiacus
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:iconawesomeelephant:
awesomeelephant Featured By Owner Apr 19, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
This is completely separate from the colors on it, but I've been hearing that Spinosaurus is a quadruped and others say new evidence suggests that its back to a biped. Which one is it? Is it plausible that it could somehow be both? Like a Hadrosaur?
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Apr 20, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
The quadruped idea is proposed by the authors of the new study from 2014 that also published the whole short leg thing. Their study found that Spinosaurus was too front heavy because of it's long torso and short limbs to still keep balance on two and that the animal had to walk on its knuckles. (theropod arms can't pronate so the animal couldn't rest on the palm of its hands)
The criticism on this (and basically everyone agrees with that afaik so so do I) is that theropod arms aren't made for supporting the weight of the animal: quadrupedal animals show special adaptations for this together with the shoulder blades. Theropods would decapitate themselves internally with their shoulder blades if they tried to support their weight or walk on their arms. From Spinosaurus we have no arm material except for one phallange and it doesn't show any special adaptations. 
For the balance thing palaeontologist Andrea Cau simply proposed that the animal would elevate its neck and possibly raise its back in a diagonal pose instead of horizontal, using its tail a bit in a sort of tripodal stance: some tail vertebrae show some similar structures to sauropods who could support themselves with their tail while on their hind legs.
This way the animal could simply walk on its hindlegs without falling forward.

There's a problem in this however as adressed in the links in my description (the third one): Spinosaurus' tibia shows a surprisingly large attachment area for the caudofemoralis muscle (the muscle that pulls the leg back during walking, it's what pushed the animal forward) but the musculature and skeletal structure for supporting the animal in a vertical way (standing, walking etc.) is diminished which means the animal couldn't or was bad at standing on its hind legs. That it has huge muscles for pushing itself forward however means it was at least doing something. Nash, the author of the links, proposes that Spinosaurus underwater could've ran over the bottom like a hippo to chase prey instead of swimming (a study on this showed that it swam slow which is weird for something that chased fish to survive) and on land did some kind of belly crawling instead of a bipedal or quadrupedal pose because this is advantageous on the muddy terrain around the rivers, estuaries and coasts it inhabited. On its belly it prevented itself from sinking deep into the mud because it spreads out its weight over a larger surface, crocodiles do this too for example. Going from this it probably lived similar to a crocodile or seal and never came on totally dry land (far away from water, I mean by that). 

So in short no quadruped! And possibly not even a biped either, but quadruped is definitely wrong.
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:iconawesomeelephant:
awesomeelephant Featured By Owner Apr 20, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
definitely a lot to take in but that does make a lot of sense. 
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:iconawesomeelephant:
awesomeelephant Featured By Owner Apr 18, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
So I want to learn new coloring and drawing strategies and I feel like you can help me with this. How did you get the water shine to look so realistic? I would really like to know and hone this technique myself.
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Apr 19, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Do you mean the colour differences or the light beams?
The former is just building up layers. I start with a light blue colour and then add some darker blue on top of it. Use some reference pictures, those are very handy too!
The latter is just done with an eraser.
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:iconawesomeelephant:
awesomeelephant Featured By Owner Apr 19, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
I mean't the color differences but knowing how to make the light beams is handy too! Just for clarification on the color differences, for the upper part of the water, I color the entirety of it light blue and then I go over it with marks of dark blue to leave little spots and lines of light blue over.
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Apr 20, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Ah, you were talking about the surface too! Yes, light blue first and then dark blue patterns. Again, reference pictures are very helpful to get the shape of these dark blue patterns right. Don't forget to colour lighter and lighter the farther you go away from the viewer, this gives perspective.
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:iconawesomeelephant:
awesomeelephant Featured By Owner Apr 20, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Thank you so much!
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Apr 21, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
No problem!
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:iconcamerondillon:
CameronDillon Featured By Owner Mar 21, 2017
I love the spinosaurus reconstruction shown above! I just finished reading the 3 part analysis of spinosaurus and the idea of a hippo like large-theropod is truly fascinating, but I got some questions about the animals anatomy.

  Personally, I absolutely agree with the animal having thick skin to protect itself from the elements in it's environment. I am just wondering since dinosaurs and birds have a hair/feather length based upon weight on a 6:1 ratio with mammals which means a 6 ton dinosaur like tyrannosaurus rex or spinosaurus would be possessing just as much feathers as a 1 ton mammal with fur, what is the possibility of spinosaurus possessing hair-like waterproof and downy feathers on some areas like its head, neck, small portion of the body, and maybe on the sail as an evolutionary trait? The purpose of its feathers would act as some sort of camouflage in the murky water it hunted in and to provide a bit of warmth when out of water like how some animals and us as human-beings get cold after returning back on land from water.

  Another question I have about spinosaurus is it's massive sail. I was really impressed when i read the theory about how the sail can be used to improve agility in the water. The only problem i have about it is that with a 7-8 foot tall sail that can be bit in half by carcharodontosaurus where this animal is known for weak bites, how could be able to maintain balance when spinosaurus turns because force of water is pressing against it?

Other than those two questions, I think that the spinosaurus shown above is pretty accurate.      
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
The thickness of the skin is speculation. Let me point that out first. 
It's a good hypothesis by Nash, but I personally don't expect it to have had such an extreme thickness anymore and to have relied more on its liver and lungs to regulate its buoyancy just like crocodiles do. 

It could indeed have had feathers, but the jury is still out on that. We don't have any knowledge about Megalosaurid integument so it could as well have had scales. The body mass-body volume ratio of theropods is an interesting thing because as you probably are aware there are animals like Carnotaurus for example which is an average-sized theropod of which we have a clear view of its integument (not fluffy) so I wonder how those animals kept warm. Spinosaurus could've also just had some extra blubber beneath its scales. Aquatic birds have that too.

I'm not so sure wether the sail is this weak that it could've been bitten in halve...
You're probably referring to that one spine of which the tip is missing? That's only the tip and for an animal with an skull of about 1.5 meter and serrated shark-like teeth it's not really a problem to bite through it. That doesn't mean of course the bones are weak.
It's all about physics actually for the balance thing. The forse on the sail is spread all over its surface so it gets divided nicely instead of applied to only one small section. The spines could take that, because, well they're spines.
If you're ever in a swimming pool and there are these boards that kids use to learn how to swim with their legs: try pushing it through the water while holding it vertical. You can feel the water pushing back. Spinosaurus had this too because its torso wants to spin , but the sail is just like the board. Lots of surface the water can push against so the animal stays in place.
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:iconcamerondillon:
CameronDillon Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2017
That is a very interesting example and way how spinosaurus can use it's sail in the water. It makes a lot of sense that its torso and pelvis is very flexible in side to side movements. I was actually referring to that one spine from spinosaurus that was damaged and you have made a good point how carcharodontosaurus could have no problem biting through that piece, I never thought about that before writing about it. Thank you very much for the reply.
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Mar 23, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
No problem! 
I don't really expect the torso of Spinosaurus to have been that flexible. For swimming it probably just relied on its tail and legs (or maybe even its arms as palaeontologist Andrea Cau speculates)
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:iconcamerondillon:
CameronDillon Featured By Owner Mar 23, 2017
I think so too, i did some research on spinosaurus and its anatomy and some information i have learned  by looking at the skeleton is that the tail of spinosaurus is longer and the base of the tail more muscular than that of crocodiles. Also, the tail vertebrae is very loosely connected to each other so my hypothesis is that spinosaurus relied more of it's tail than its legs than crocodiles and would only have used it's stalky legs for going after prey at long distances. I do think the arms helped the animal a lot like the sail for balancing   
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:icontheproxynightcrawler:
"punting"? you mean hunting while making puns?
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Mar 19, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Hah!
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:icontheproxynightcrawler:
I guess that though was kinda funny
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:iconthatcoelurosaur:
ThatCoelurosaur Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
What I love about spino is the ambiguity in it's reconstructions. While I personally prefer the more crocodile-ish model, the hippo one works pret well too. The only reason I lean more towards a crocodile-like creature is that unlike hippos, which eat non moving water plants and grasses, spino would have to actively catch fish and other marine creatures. However, both are plausible, just my own personal preference
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Mar 9, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Yeah, there's quite a lot of freedom on certain aspects :)

I prefer a combination of them where it can both swim and punt because of what you said. After all crocodiles walk over river bottoms too.
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:iconthatcoelurosaur:
ThatCoelurosaur Featured By Owner Mar 9, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Oh yeah definitely, but I was referring more to the thick-skinned hippo like hide rather than punting. I just see a more slim body to be better suited to hunting in water, but again, just a personal preference. Amazing artwork by the way, so hard to find good traditional artists on this website.
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Mar 10, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Ah okay! For hunting in water I don't really think the thickness of the skin is a problem, the animal just needs to be aerodynamic enough and with such a long neck Spinosaurus has, I'm sure it can grab fish during a chase.
I prefer it a bit less thick too. In my last drawing it's supposed to be somewhere in between Ibrahim's 2014 version and this. 

Thanks :)
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:iconthatcoelurosaur:
ThatCoelurosaur Featured By Owner Mar 10, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
No problem mang
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:iconadalack:
Adalack Featured By Owner Jan 29, 2017
Some favorites of mine; thanks for this action-adventure scene! Thank you immensely!
Sincerely pleased with this;
Adalack.
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:iconrowansavestheday:
RowanSavesTheDay Featured By Owner Jan 12, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
The lungfish is like: derp daderp daderp! I is lungfish ^-^
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:icondinomaster337:
Dinomaster337 Featured By Owner Nov 15, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
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:icondinomaster337:
Dinomaster337 Featured By Owner Nov 12, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Hey, I thought your picture was awesome and was good enough for this D&D stat block I was making for it, with credit you of coarse, and was wondering if there is a smaller copy? Cause the page looks like this www.dandwiki.com/wiki/Spinosau…
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Nov 13, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
It's okay, thanks for the credits. Ask me beforehand though next time.
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:icondinomaster337:
Dinomaster337 Featured By Owner Nov 13, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Ok. Noted ;). So, is it possible to get this picture smaller?
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Nov 13, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
I fear not... Can't you save it on your computer and shrink the size on your own?
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:icondinomaster337:
Dinomaster337 Featured By Owner Nov 13, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
I'm using an IPad, but I do have a computer. Don't know why I didn't think of that sooner?
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:icondinomaster337:
Dinomaster337 Featured By Owner Nov 12, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Sorry about not telling you.Sweating a little... 
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Sep 6, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Why not just make your own punting Spino? The world needs more punting Spinos!
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:iconjoebotzer:
joebotzer Featured By Owner Aug 17, 2016  Professional Digital Artist
Nice job on this!
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Aug 17, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Thanks :D
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:icondovahkiinhu3br:
DovahkiinHU3BR Featured By Owner Aug 7, 2016
Some of Nash's reasons for such spinosaurus seem to be kinda nonsense. You see: if you compare the width of a hippo skeleton with the width of the body of a wild (again: wild) hippo you will see that they are not that fat (so what Nash says about the thick skin makes sense), but such fat looking spinosaurus does not follow the same rule as it's skeleton is proportionally not as wide as that of a hippo.

Without mentioning that hippos can and do float sometimes. They may fall asleep underwater, but their bodies will float when they need to breathe. It seems that hippos do not float because they do not take the maximum amount of air they are able to take, otherwise they would float and the paws of a hippo are not made to swim. Spino, at the other hand, had a very long tail that would allow it to swim almost as effectively as a crocodile (even if it did not have webbed feet). But maybe if it found a carcass underwater it could take a small quantity of air to prevent floating and get the carcass.

Still a great drawing tough. Congrats!
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Edited Aug 7, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Honestly, there isn't that much skin on top of this skeleton if you compare it with Nash's drawing and take into acount there's also muscle and fat between this skin and ribs as would be irl. Plus, Nash's drawings style is a bit coarse.
And my reconstruction isn't too fat either (okay, maybe the neck) if you know how shrink-wrapped the press release version is.

Haven't heard of that. Always read they sunk. (the adults that is)
It's a good idea you have there actually about that taking in enough air! If I remember it correctly though, I think Nash never said it couldn't swim... He has an artwork of one swimming to the surface so I guess that means they not always stuck onto the bottom.

Thanks :D
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:icondovahkiinhu3br:
DovahkiinHU3BR Featured By Owner Aug 7, 2016
Hmmm, indeed what you said about Nash's drawing makes sense (the swimming thing), but since spinosaurus was far more built to swim than a hippo, I think that a more crocodile like behavior on this aspect is far nore likely.

But I have to say that Nash's reconstruction eighter shows an abnormably thick skin or a quantity of fat that no predator like spinosaurus would have because when herbivores are capable of fully digesting plant matter (even the molecules that make the external part of corn that we are completely unnable to digest), plants will give them absurd quantities of fat, but carnivores are unnable to digest thsi as the molecules will already be broken in the prey's tissues... plus the fact that predators need to waste energy while hunting.

You are welcome.
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Aug 8, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Yeah, it could have a combination of swimming and punting. 
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:icondovahkiinhu3br:
DovahkiinHU3BR Featured By Owner Aug 8, 2016
:D
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:icongreenanac0nda:
I honestly don't see why people wouldn't want this in Jurassic World, I think It'd be cooler then Hell. Picture This, Somebody gets too close to the river, If Trex Or Indominus don't get you... Like a 60 foot crocodile, striking at 40 miles an hour, only this crocodile has claws that'll rip apart anything they catch. This thing could shoot out of the water like an arrow, jump ontop of ya and rip ya to pieces. You think of it that way, and you know they got that boat scene right in the third movie. WHen the parasailers, Eric and Ben, fly through the clouds, and find their boat totally trashed, and covered in blood. Spinosaurus could, literally, lung itself out of the water, grab onto the boat with it's claws, and whether it walked on it knuckles, or its hands, doesn't matter worth a crap. Cause once it's in the boat, anything is fair game. Shoot if this thing grabbed Indominus from the water, It might have no problem of killing Indominus, maybe. SOme might even call it "The River Hook" Or "Hook Of The River" Whatever floats your boat.
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:iconacepredator:
acepredator Featured By Owner Oct 18, 2016
THIS.
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:iconsnugglesthedinosaur:
snugglesthedinosaur Featured By Owner Aug 4, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Nice idea but I doubt Spinosaurus was capable of dragging large theropods to their murky doom.
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:iconacepredator:
acepredator Featured By Owner Edited Oct 18, 2016
Why the hell not? It's big enough at around 50ft.
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:iconsnugglesthedinosaur:
snugglesthedinosaur Featured By Owner Oct 18, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
It was probably capable, but what would it do then? It's not like T.rex sized theropods were #1 on its menu.
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:iconacepredator:
acepredator Featured By Owner Oct 19, 2016
They weren't #1 on its menu, but more due to availability (aquatic animals don't get the chance toe at land animals that often). I doubt Spino would pass up a meal. 
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:iconsnugglesthedinosaur:
snugglesthedinosaur Featured By Owner Oct 19, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Maybe.
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:icongreenanac0nda:
greenanac0nda Featured By Owner Aug 8, 2016
IDK, a 60 foot Spinosaur, verses a 45 foot Carcharodontosaur... The spinosaur would lung like a crocodile, and it could use its claws to slash and gash.... it sounds doable... but honestly.... I think it all depends on whos quicker to respond... if the spino can drag the theropod to the water.... Spino might win. But if it gets dragged up on land, the tabes turn.
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:iconsnugglesthedinosaur:
snugglesthedinosaur Featured By Owner Aug 8, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Note Spinosaurus was about 45-50 feet long at most. But your explanation seems likely
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:icondontknowwhattodraw94:
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Jul 30, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Some more accuracy and plausible speculation in the Jurassic franchise would be nice, yes.
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